- October 15, 2021
- Posted by: Nicholas Fitch
Gandhi`s motives for making a pact with Lord Irwin, the viceroy, are better understood in terms of technique. Satyagraha movements have been commonly described as “struggles,” “rebellions,” and “wars without violence.” However, due to the common connotation of these words, they seemed to place a disproportionate emphasis on the negative aspect of the movements, namely opposition and conflict. Satyagraha`s goal, however, was not to achieve the physical elimination or moral collapse of an adversary – but to initiate a psychological process through the suffering of his hands that could allow the mind and heart to meet. In such a struggle, a compromise with an adversary was neither heresy nor betrayal, but a natural and necessary step. If it turned out that the compromise was premature and the adversary had no remorse, nothing prevented the Satyagrahi from returning to a non-violent struggle. The Gandhi-Irwin Pact had profound implications for the Congress and India. Britain`s acceptance of Congress as the sole representative of the Indian people put the main Indian party on an equal footing with the government. Although Congress suspended the civil disobedience movement, the status and prestige of Congress was significantly increased after the pact was signed. • The Muslim leaders who attended the conference were Muhammad Ali, Agha Khan, Fazlul Haq and Jinnah. The result of the third round table was the “White Paper” published by the government. Based on this document, the Government of India Act 1935 was to be passed. • It took place on 17 November 1932 in London.
It was only a nominal conference, Congress refused to attend (actually not invited) and in Britain, the Labour Party also refused not to attend. Thus, only 46 people made contact. The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed due to the brutal British repression of the Satyagrahis. Due to widespread violence, Gandhiji cancelled the civil disobedience movement and signed a pact with Lord Irwin. The following agreements have been reached:- The government has published a white paper on the future of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution provided for proposals for the creation of several Muslim-majority provinces and the formation of parliaments based on separate constituencies. Thus, the common electoral system of the nation was abandoned. Gandhiji therefore began his fast on September 20, 1932. This created deep emotion among the leaders of the caste Hindus and the depressed classes who reached an agreement in Poona to save Gandhiji`s life as well as the unity of the Hindu community. This agreement became famous as the Pact of Poona.
Gandhiji expressed his desire for individual civil disobedience instead of mass civil obedience. As a result, the nation rose to suffer and make sacrifices in order to continue the struggle for. Throughout 1932, the movement continued in full rage. Millions of Satyagrahis have been arrested. By April 1932, British prisons were overcrowded only with the Satyagrahis, numbering more than one lakh and twenty thousand. As a precautionary measure, he ordered the arrest of all prominent leaders across the country, and revolutionary activity intensified in Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and the border provinces. The civil disobedience movement resumed and Gandhiji, along with many other prominent leaders, was arrested on January 4, 1932. Congress was declared an illegal body and the government took the strictest measures to crush the movement. The excess of the police has even surpassed its own records of shame in the past.
Many were unhappy that Gandhi had ended his movement when the people were in a good mood and the government was demoralized. Gandhi declared his logic that the nation had suffered a lot and needed a pause to fight the next phase of the struggle with more strength and vitality. .